The True Mosses are fare the largest group with 11.500-13.000
members, divided into 72 families. 390 of these can be
found in Denmark, called "Bladmosser". The group is
distinguished by having spore capsules with teeth that are arthrodontous; the teeth are separate from each other and
jointed at the base where they attach to the opening of the
The construction have quite some resembles to a classic "flower"
Beside from that, their appearance are quite diverse.
Hepaticopsida: The Liverworts consist of 46 families with
around 7.000-8.500 members of which 150 can be found in Denmark,
called "Levermosser". Liverwort leaves are arranged in one
plane, the capsules and seta are brown, and opens as an umbrella.
Anthocerotopsida: The Hornworts is a smaller group with only
three families and 300 members of which only two can be found in
Denmark: "Ru Hornkapsl"; Anthoceros punctatus ssp
agrestis and "Glat Hornkapsl"; Phaeoceros leavis spp
carolinianus. The characteristic is that the sporophyte
continues to grow throughout its life, forming the "horn".
Sphagnopsida: The Peat
Moss class contains of only one family with around 200 species.
40 can be found in Denmark, known as "TÝrvemosser" or "Spagnummosser".
It has a peculiar structure where its branches produced in
fascicles or two or more diverging branches and two or more
pendant (hanging) branches. Their spores sits close around the
top of the plant.
The Granite or Lantern Mosses are divided into two families;
Andreaeaceae and Andreaeobryaceae which only hold around 60-100
species, 40 found in Denmark, known as "Sortmos". Their
distinctive features are; the protonemata (the earliest stage in
growth of a moss from the spore) have a different structure from
other mosses; they are thallose, forming a
multicellular flattened layer of embryonic cells. Further more,
the lantern mosses also release their spores differently. Where
the Bryopsida have a stalked capsule whose top falls off to
release the spores, the capsules of lantern mosses have no
stalk, no cap, and no teeth. Instead, the capsule is elevated on
an extension of the plant to which it is attached.
While living in South Africa,
Even more South African mosses.